Let’s take this artificial Electric Sun theory one step further and see if anything else jumps out at us. I’ll be using mainstream paradigms of “charge”, “electrons” and “protons” etc. You may have alternative theories on how electric circuits work, but this is just a collation of the info available on the web to see how it fits with the induction of the sulfur-lamp Sun in a vacuum. Also note that when taking about charges in “deep” space, these haven’t necessarily been directly tested or observed (except by satellites, mmmmm) but often seem to rely on computer modeling and replication in the lab which isn’t science in its strictest sense, i.e. direct experimentation and observation.
For instance, this concave Earth thesis is an amateur attempt at a possible explanation of our every day observations within the framework of the rectilineator and Wilhelm Martin’s bendy light experiments. Those two experiments are the science part of this blog; the rest is educated speculation within that framework that the Earth is concave and light bends upwards. The same applies to those “scientists” who input the data and apply it to their computer models based on heliocentric theory and a globe Sun. It is very important to differentiate between models (theory) and experiments (science) – the two are not the same.
The theory of this blog is that the Sun is an inductor which resides in a vacuum. A vacuum is a very, very poor electrical conductor, which means the inductor is essentially short-circuited, and yet it is still moving in Earth’s magnetic H-field. The electrons are moving within the Sun with nowhere to go creating an opposing magnetic field. The strength of this field will depend on the strength of the H-field, the magnetic saturation of the iron/nickel alloy (which is very high) and how fast the Sun moves (depends on the last two factors).
When the current through an inductor is increased, it drops a voltage opposing the direction of electron flow, acting as a power load. In this condition the inductor is said to be charging, because there is an increasing amount of energy being stored in its magnetic field.
The more the charge, the bigger the opposing magnetic field. It would seem then that the Sun has a strong magnetic field which very quickly flips polarity around the equinoxes. However, there are three ways electrons could be “discharged” by the Sun despite the vacuum (two of which are mentioned here). Firstly, the Sun is converting those super-highly energized electrons into light and heat through its carbon electrode and into the sulfur filament as discussed in a previous article. Secondly, electrons can travel through a vacuum by thermionic emission – when an electrode is heated it still emits electrons even if surrounded by a vacuum. This is the principle behind the cathode ray tube used in old box TVs and computer monitors, and especially the old vacuum light bulbs.
Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.
Does the Sun emit electron beams? Funnily enough, it does.
The sun emits light, but it also emits particle beams that generate radio waves… Electron beams emitted from the sun are the start of a multi-stage process generating these radio waves. The electron beams travel out into the solar wind and generate a type of wave that cannot travel very far (electrostatic Langmuir waves).
Protons are also emitted, not as a continuous stream, but periodically as coronal mass ejections. These ejections also include iron, which is a solid material. Coronal mass ejections are also commonly associated with solar flares which I have theorized to be caused by electrical surges. These surges cause the sulfur filament to break off and melt through the Sun sometimes crashing to Earth as meteorites. So in theory, these protons are part of the Sun, rather than part of its electric circuit.
The third way electrons can conduct through a vacuum is by electron/positron pairs. Despite there being no conductor in a vacuum, the positive ions on one side and the electrons on the other still find a way to come together through the vacuum and form a circuit. Supposedly, a very high electrical field strength is needed before this can happen – theoretically 2.1E17 V/m.
Are electron/positron pairs seen between the Sun and the Earth? Yes. This phenomenon is seen in the Van Allen Belts.
Recently, the nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in electron-positron plasma has attracted the interest of researchers. Due to the fact that the electron-positron plasma are found in Van Allen Belts, near polar cap of pulsar, in the active galactic nuclei, as well as in the early universe… In relativistic temperature the electrons (and positrons) energy Ee far exceeds the rest mass energy so that electrons and positrons behave kinematically similar to photons and come into equilibrium with nearly equal population.
It seems that perhaps not as much electrical energy is needed to form these pairs due to the heat of the plasma (thermosphere). But wait. What are the Van Allen Belts? And how do they fit in an inverted Earth?
Van Allen Belts
Around the Earth, centered around the equator, (-65° to +65° latitude) 200 Km and up, in the shape of two (possibly three) rings are a lot of fast moving charged particles. These rings are called the Van Allen Belts. The limit of these belts is said to be 60,000km, but in a concave Earth this is impossible as the maximum distance to the center of the Earth cavity is about 6,700km.
There is an inner and an outer belt consisting of electrons and protons with the outer having a higher proportion and higher energy charge of electrons. In a concave Earth, the outer ring is really the center of the Earth cavity and could be called the central ring. Interestingly, the belts can get as low as the glass or ionosphere (100km), although they dissipate quickly from the 200 to 100km altitude (courtesy of the capacitor nature of the glass most like).
The outer belt consists mainly of high energy (0.1–10 MeV) electrons trapped by the Earth’s magnetosphere… fluxes of energetic electrons can drop to the low interplanetary levels within about 100 km (62 mi), a decrease by a factor of 1,000… The inner belt contains high concentrations of electrons in the range of hundreds of keV and energetic protons with energies exceeding 100 MeV, trapped by the strong (relative to the outer belts) magnetic fields in the region.
What does the inner ring look like? In a convex Earth, these rings look like a toroid.
Toroid-shaped van Allen belts with the Earth at the center in the heliocentric model.
The higher energy electrons are located in the outer (central) belt.
In a concave Earth, we just switch over the fields so that the outer layer is in the center. So instead of the Earth being at the center of the toroid, it is the Sun.
Same shape, just that the outer layers are the central small ones, and the inner layers the near larger ones. The Sun is not to scale here. It is much smaller in reality.
Now, the Van Allen Belts are starting to make sense. There are super high energy electrons in the central belt surrounding the Sun because the Sun is constantly inducting electric current in a vacuum, which it is fairly easily emitting due to the heat the Sun creates. The high energy protons in the belt further out tells us there is a high potential difference between the two layers. Below that is the ionosphere, or glass, which is ionized by the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun causing free electrons. These electrons are said to rise, with the positive ions quickly following the electrons to which they are attracted. In essence we have another potential difference at the ionosphere. The atmosphere below it is said to be positively charged, with the Earth’s crust the opposite, i.e. negatively charged. This is yet another potential difference.
(Source: All About Lightning by Martin A Uman, Dover, 1986). The region beginning at about 30 miles and extending upward is called the electrosphere. The voltage between the earth and the electrosphere in regions of fine weather is about 300,000 volts. To maintain this voltage the earth has a negative charge of about a million coulombs on its surface and an equal net positive charge is distributed throughout the atmosphere. Measurements have shown that the negative charge on earth remains roughly constant with time. At first glance, this fact is difficult to understand since the charge on earth is continuously leaking off into the conducting atmosphere. In fact, calculations show that if the earth’s charge were not being continuously re-supplied, the charge on earth would disappear in less than an hour…
The earth is recharged by thunderstorms. Thunderstorms deliver a net negative charge to earth as a result of the sum of the effects of the following processes: (1) negative charge carried from cloud to earth by lightning, (2) positive charge carried from cloud to ground by rain and (3) positive charge carried upward (the equivalent of negative charge carried downward) through the air beneath and above a thunderstorm, the source of the positive charge being corona discharge off grass, trees and other objects with sharp points on the ground beneath thunderstorms. The total current flowing beneath all thunderstorms in progress throughout the world at any given time is thought to be about 2000 amps, and is in such a direction as to charge the earth negatively. An equal and opposite current flows in regions of fine weather. The result is that the net negative charge on earth and the equal and opposite net positive charge in the atmosphere remain approximately constant.
In terms of potential difference, what we have is something like this inside our earth cavity:
The potential differences from the center of the cavity have a strong negative charge around the Sun, a very weak negative charge along the crust and a weak to very strong positive charge in between.
The electrosphere depicts the crust as negative and space as positive.
You would expect the negative and positive charges to flow through each other in a kind of electrical circuit, with the electrons around the Sun finding their way to the crust, and the positive ions from the crust moving up to the Sun. There is some evidence for this. Firstly, every time there is a thunderstorm, very low frequency radio waves (whistler mode waves) are launched into the Van Allen Belts (magnetosphere). These waves interact with the electrons in the radiation belt and cause them to precipitate onto the ionosphere adding electrons to the D-region (60 to 90km altitude). This process is called “lightning-induced electron precipitation“.
Secondly, a very common phenomenon above thunderstorms are sprites. These start at the base of the ionosphere and develop very rapidly downwards at ultra fast speeds, only recently captured on camera.
(Click to animate). A downward moving sprite in slow motion.
According to the book Lightning: Physics and Effects By Vladimir A. Rakov, Martin A. Uman, sprites are primarily caused by runaway electrons or “electron beams”. This is supported by another source which states that non-luminous electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the low frequency (40–400 kHz) radio signals of which they radiate. They have also been detected without any sprites present. This “impulsive current” of electron beams above thunderclouds is directed downwards from the ionosphere and “needs to be considered as a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit.”
So far that explains the downward moving negative charge, but what about the positive charge that must move upwards? We have already mentioned the positive charge moving up to the cloud from objects on the ground with sharp points. Above the storm clouds, blue jets appear and move upwards to the ionosphere. Some sources state that their electric contact to the ionosphere has yet to be established. However, blue jets observed over a thunderstorm in Mexico in 2010 confirmed that these blue jets were positively charged and initiated by the electric field changes associated with cloud to ground lightning strikes. Another source states that in normal thunderstorms, upward moving blue jets are positively charged and originate at the top of the storm cloud.
A blue jet captured traveling upwards from cloud to ionosphere. (The colour blue was added later as the low-light camera took monochrome images)
The wiki article on atmospheric electricity mentions that scientists are still debating the root cause of this atmospheric charge whether it is pressure, wind, humidity, or “the impact of solar wind and accumulation of charged solar particles”. However, the wiki article on solar winds is convinced that they do play a role.
Some high energy cosmic rays produced by distant supernovas as well as solar particles from the solar wind, enter the atmosphere and electrify the air, creating pathways for lightning bolts.
The latter article has further very recent evidence (2014) to support it. Lightning rates increase (by either 32% or 50%, depending on the source) with the solar wind stream:
The results suggest that the solar wind helps accelerate particles into our atmosphere rather than deflecting them, but the exact mechanism remains unknown… “We expected to see a decrease in lightning rates with the solar wind stream but what we actually saw was an enhancement (up to 50% increase according to this source). This caused us a bit of head-scratching,” said Chris Scott from the University of Reading
No, Mr. Scott. If you knew that the Earth was concave with an artificial inducting Sun in the center, then this would not come as a surprise at all. There is also a correlation (albeit not across the board) with ionosphere disturbances (which in my theory leads to lightning strikes):
I have also been looking at data on ionospheric disturbances here on earth as part of my own research (again, this data is publicly available via the Stanford University website http://sid.stanford.edu/database-browser/). I selected a day in which I knew there was significant solar activity (in this case, 18 February 2011) and plotted the solar activity for that day (top panel) against the corresponding changes in the upper atmosphere above Austria (bottom panel). This clearly shows that at least five of the flares that day (denoted by the vertical dashed red lines) had a direct impact on the ionosphere. Again, this suggests a causal relationship between solar activity and atmospheric disturbances…
If thunderstorms are directly caused by these radiation belts, surely there should be no thunderstorms above +65° (Arctic Circle) and below -65° latitude (Antarctica), as the Van Allen Belts only exist between these two latitudes. Neither Antartica, nor the Arctic ever experience thunderstorms, or at least are extremely rare (only over the the edges) apparently due to a lack of moisture. Coincidence? Highly unlikely.
Average number of lightning flashes per year (per square km) shows a lot of lightning, but none over the Arctic Circle or Antarctica. The Van Allen Belts also don’t exist at these latitudes. Coincidence?
There is no conducting material (liquid water) at very high and low latitudes to conduct the Sun’s electric current to the crust. Therefore, the electric charges around the Sun only exist where the electric Sun/Earth circuit is still intact, which is below these latitudes. In a nutshell, it looks like the Sun charges the Earth.
The following has already been discussed but is worth a recap. The holes near the poles produce a magnetic H-field, which is an attraction between two opposite magnetic poles. It would seem that it is no co-incidence that the super charged Van Allen Belt radiation particles follow the same field pattern as the iron filings, with the exception of the latitudes where the electric circuit is broken of course.
Iron filings produce a toroid shape around the space between the two attracting poles.
The Van Allen Belt particles follow the same toroid shape as the iron filings, except falling short at the latitudes where the electric circuit is broken.
In physics, this magnetic H-field is seen as synonymous with both magnetic attraction and the attraction between charges, i.e. the electric field.
The H-field, therefore, is analogous to the electric field E, which starts at a positive electric charge and ends at a negative electric charge.
So far so good. But the Sun is inducting. It is moving within this electric field creating its own moving electric charges (electric current) which creates a perpendicular magnetic field (Lenz’s law).
Electromagnetic fields are caused by electric charges at rest and in motion. Positive and negative electric charges are sources of the electric fields and moving electric charges yielding a current is the source of magnetic fields.
So the Sun has its own electric current and magnetic field. Some of its electrons are emitted and form the Van Allen Belts which align themselves with the Earth cavity’s electric H-field. The Sun’s own electric field (current) should have an effect on the Van Allen Belts though… and it does. The Sun’s own electric current is called the solar wind, or heliospheric current sheet and is calculated to be about 3 billion amps which feeds into the Earth’s magnetosphere (Van Allen Belts). Notice how the Sun’s electric current carries 3 billion amps compared to the Earth crust’s mere 2000 amps. This sounds like it is the Sun electrifying the Earth and not the other way round, but then again, the Earth has a far bigger surface area than the Sun.
The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons and protons with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun’s gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.
The aurora borealis is said to be caused by the solar wind hitting the ionosphere (glass).
This makes some sense, as electrons hitting a layer of glass and its ionized particles is the same principle as the old cathode ray tube televisions. This analogy is often stated in articles on the northern lights. But if that is true, then in a concave Earth, the solar wind must rotate against the geographic poles having the same plane as the face of the Sun, which points at the Earth’s equator during the equinoxes (not across the Sun’s equatorial plane which the mainstream model dictates). This is supported by the fact that bursts of high energy electrons have been detected in the solar wind at high latitudes. Also, the solar wind is said to emanate from the Sun’s equatorial region because this is “the point that separates north facing magnetic field lines from south facing magnetic field lines.” In the artificial Sun concave Earth model (CEM), the magnetic field lines are perpendicular to the heliocentric version of the Sun, with the Sun’s face and the backside being the magnetic poles, not the”top” and “bottom”. Therefore, the “point where the radial magnetic field is zero” is at the Sun disk’s rim, corroborating this location of the solar wind in the concave Earth. Also supporting CEM is that both the aurora borealis (northern lights ) and the aurora australis (southern lights) occur at the same time. This is hard to explain in the planetary heliocentric model because the Earth is supposed to tilt away or toward the Sun depending on the time of year. This puts one pole pointing into the solar wind, and another away from it – not so in a concave Earth.
There is said to be evidence that the heliospheric current sheet (solar wind), or the Sun’s electric current, is more akin to the picture on the right, rather than the “ballerina’s skirt” on the left.
The solar wind has its poles pointing over the face and backside of the Sun. It is as if there is a coil of wire wrapped around the Sun pointing at the equator on the equinoxes.
The solar wind perpendicular to the Sun’s equator also makes sense in the CEM because the Sun’s magnetic poles are on the face and backside, which they must be if there is a “coil of wire” wrapped around the Sun pointing at the equator. In the CEM, the solar wind has nothing to do with gravity and everything to do with thermionic emission and electric current rotation. The high speed of the solar wind is said to require an unknown additional acceleration mechanism apart from heat. The solar wind is the Sun’s electric current, rotating like a current in a “coil of wire”. The centrifugal force of this current is very likely the unknown mechanism.
The electrons in the solar wind collect in the Earth’s magnetic (electric) H-field, or the central Van Allen Belts, closest to the Sun. These electrons also slow down or stop as they get nearer to the Earth’s magnetic field. The charged particles bounce to and fro from one hemisphere to the next and back again in a toroid shape forming the Van Allen Belts already discussed. They say the repulsion is caused by the Earth’s magnetic field at the poles. This unfortunately doesn’t make sense as electrons are always a negative polarity, whereas the magnetic poles are either positive or negative; so one pole should attract, and the other repel.
Luckily, there is another possible solution in the CEM. According to simple electromagnetism, the Sun’s inducted current will spin clockwise if the face of the Sun is magnetic south, and counterclockwise if the face is magnetic north (viewing the face of the Sun from the front). In the CEM, the Sun flips its magnetic polarity every 6 months (lenz’s law), thereby its electric current must also alternate its spin direction twice a year as well. This causes the electrons to reverse their direction. So we have electrons (and protons) moving up and down the two hemispheres, each direction being strengthened (or weakened) over a 6-month period.
The Van Allen Belts have electrons (and protons) moving up and down the hemispheres. (Convex Earth diagram. Really it is the Sun in the center of the toroid)
There is a composite image (not an actual photo of the Earth) where it looks like there is no aurora in the center. This is because the Van Allen Belts generally don’t reach into the Arctic/Antarctic latitudes; although one part of the rim looks a little closer to the south pole than the other side. Having said that, Dr. Brooks Agnew claims that there are no genuine “satellite” pictures (even composite) above +60° and below -60° latitude available due to the Data Denial Act of 2006 (52 minutes into the video).
“Aurora australis (11 September 2005) as captured by NASA’s IMAGE satellite (???), digitally overlaid onto The Blue Marble composite image. An animation created using the same satellite data is also available.”
So, the solar wind and the Earth’s electric H-field are responsible for the shape of the Van Allen Belts. Mainstream theory also agrees with this (they call the H-field “Earth’s magnetic field”). However, unlike mainstream theory, the solar wind is entirely responsible for the back and forth movement of the charged particles. This has nothing to do with sunspot (plasmasphere) rotation which occurs across the Sun’s equator. If the Sun’s electric current isn’t the plasmasphere spinning around the Sun’s equator as heliocentric theory dictates, what is causing the sunspot rotation in CEM?
In the heliocentric model, the solar wind is rotating around the Sun’s equator as an extension of its plasmasphere or supposed electric current, which rotates at the Sun’s equator every 26 or so sidereal days. In the CEM, the plasmasphere and the Sun’s electric current (solar wind) are two completely separate effects, with the solar wind perpendicular to the rotation of the Sun’s plasmasphere (sunspot rotation) feeding into the Van Allen Belts, which in turn hits the glass (ionosphere). So what causes the plasmasphere rotation in the CEM?
I don’t honestly know; but the simplest answer is the Sun’s precession around the center. A gyroscope spinning in a counterclockwise direction will precess in a circle counterclockwise; so the counterclockwise precession of the Sun causes the Sun’s plasma (hot gas) to spin counterclockwise. In other words, the rotating plasmasphere would be a mechanical effect of the Sun inducting in the Earth’s electric H-field, rather than being its electric current.
A spinning gyroscope causes it to precess around the central point.
So far we have recognized four electromagnetic (EM) aspects inside the Earth cavity: 1. the Earth’s electric H-field, 2. the Sun’s electric current (solar wind), 3. the Sun’s alternating magnetic field (Lenz’s law) and 4. Earth’s electromagnetic circuit (atmospheric charge – includes Earth charging via the Sun which creates a continual upward moving negative field). It is this fourth aspect which seems to be responsible for bendy light.
The Earth is largely made of silicon dioxide (quartz) and is weakly electrified thanks to the Sun’s induction creating an electric circuit with itself and the crust. Engineers have reproduced this in the lab by adding a very weak electric current to cavities of silicon. One of the effects caused light to bend inside the cavity as if it were an electron aligning itself around a magnetic field. This suggests that the electric current induced in the Earth’s crust, courtesy of the Sun, creates magnetic fields within the Earth itself. Electric circuits create electric and magnetic fields as can be seen below.
The electromagnetic fields of an electric circuit (current carrying wire).
How does electrified silicon create a magnetic field which bends light in the middle of the cavity? I don’t know. But there is a clue or two if we look at what happens to the negative charge on the Earth’s crust. The crust effectively becomes weakly negatively charged due to periodic thunderstorms. However, during the long periods between (and during) thunderstorms this negative charge is gradually and continually moving upwards towards the positive atmosphere/lower ionosphere, and probably even space itself (inner Van Allen Belts).
Measurements have shown that the negative charge on earth remains roughly constant with time. At first glance, this fact is difficult to understand since the charge on earth is continuously leaking off into the conducting atmosphere. In fact, calculations show that if the earth’s charge were not being continuously re-supplied, the charge on earth would disappear in less than an hour…
Perhaps the upward moving negative charge pushes light up with it in magnetic field paths? It’s pure speculation at this stage. Bendy light in electrified cavities of silicon certainly suggests that this constant electric circuit within the cavity is responsible for the Sun’s bendy light paths, not the Sun itself. Without this piece of engineering we could easily mistake the Sun’s bendy light as an effect produced by the Sun alone, despite there being no evidence of electromagnetism being able to bend light. This is because wherever the Sun points (varied 46.86° angle throughout the year), the magnetic path follows. There is no one magnetic field set in stone in one direction belonging to the Earth (except for its electric H-field of course). It is as if there is a magnetic path potential within the entirety of the Earth cavity, and when light is shone anywhere in the cavity, the light follows one of the magnetic paths.
No matter where the Sun shines, its light follows a magnetic field path created by the electrified crust of the Earth cavity.
Visualizing this with a possible mechanical explanation as to why light running parallel with the crust moves up is a bit beyond me at this stage (although I will probably add to this, so stay tuned). All we know is that it does.
There is an interesting correlation between lightning strikes and tectonic plates. Notice how the the tectonic plates end at around 70° north and 65° south latitudes, i.e. the plates don’t exist in Antarctica or the Arctic Circle… and neither do lightning strikes.
As already seen, lightning strikes don’t exist in Antarctica or the Arctic.
The tectonic plates also don’t exist in Antarctica or the Arctic.
Correlation is not causation, but is this really just a massive coincidence? It isn’t only this correlation that raises eyebrows, but geomagnetic field variations and earthquakes directly. A geomagnetic field variations are usually caused by high-speed plasma streams ejection by the Sun which accompany solar flare activity. So they are saying there is a link between solar flares and earthquakes; although this article says there is no connection.
There are many papers demonstrating positive correlations between geomagnetic field variations and subsequent earthquake occurrence that allows to authors to talk about triggering impact on earthquake source provided by ionospheric disturbances.
The earthquakes analyzed during two grand solar minima, the Maunder (1645-1720) and the Dalton (1790-1820) showed a decrease in the number of earthquakes and the solar activity. It was observed during these minima a significant number of events at specific geological features. After the last minima (Dalton) the earthquakes pattern increased with solar maxima. The calculations showed that events increasing during solar maxima most in the Pacific, South America or Arabian until 1900. Since there were few records during these three centuries we needed additional analysis on modern data. We took the last four solar cycles events (1950-2010) and made similar calculations. The results agreed with the former calculations. It might be that the mechanism for the Sun-Earth connection relies on the solar wind speed. In both records (1600-1900) and (1950-2010) the results showed a significant increase in earthquakes events in some of the tectonic plates linked to solar maxima.
Another blogger Stace Tussel has also made a connection:
Spaceweather’s auroral oval graphic makes it easy to observe the gyrations of Earth’s fluxing magnetic fields and make connections between Sun and Earth activity. The northern auroral oval was both inflamed and lopsided around the time of the West Virginia and the Mexicali quakes. The bright orange stretching equatorward indicates that our planet’s magnetosphere is being pommeled with solar wind.
Russian scientists say there are normally positive correlations according to this 2002 article, but a few negative ones also exist.
Specialists from the Shmidt United Institute for Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, assume that magnetic storms are also powerful enough to quake the earth`s crust. To verify the hypothesis, the researchers compared more than 14,000 earth`s crust vibrations of sufficient power recorded since 1975 in Kazakhstan and Kirgizia, and approximately 350 sudden magnetic storms recorded within the same period by the world geomagnetic observations network… The calculations have proved that the greatest number of earthquakes in Kazakhstan and Kirghizia occurs within a several-day period after the beginning of the magnetic storm. Normally the number of earthquakes increases noticeably after a magnetic storm takes place. Nevertheless, in some areas the opposite regularity has been observed.
Interestingly, the Russian scientists said that even though the energy of both the magnetic storm and the earthquake are roughly the same, the “earth shock (lightning) consumes only the hundredth part of the involved resilient energy which triggers the process”. Translated that means these solar storms are a trigger rather than the actual cause because the lightning induced by the geomagnetic storm is only about 1% of the energy of the storm itself. They may be right as lightning is occurring all the time and so too are earthquakes regardless whether geomagnetic storms are happening or not. They think it could be perhaps due to an increase in pressure from the solar wind, but do they know what Chris Scott from the University of Reading knows – that there is a 50% increase in lightning strikes with the solar wind stream?
Earthquake and lightning energy
There is a approximate energy equivalent between earthquakes and lightning strikes themselves. The total seismic moment energy of a magnitude 1 earthquake has the energy equivalent of 7.8 average lightning flashes. Around the world there are approximately 20 cloud-to-ground lightning strikes occurring every second according to satellite data. That is 1,728000 per day. Earthquakes of around magnitude 1 occur several million times a year – 5 million?, or 13,700 a day. Therefore it takes about 126 lightning strikes for each magnitude 1 earthquake occurrence. That is about a 6% energy efficiency. If the number of M1 earthquakes was say half that at 2.5 million, then the efficiency would be 12%. These numbers are in the same ballpark as the Russian scientists’ estimates of a few percent efficiency.
Of course, the above is a very rough guide. The total number of lightning strikes needs to be divided by the total number of earthquakes, not just M1 types. But we only can compare the energy of an M1 earthquake to an average lightning strike. An earthquake around the M1 scale is very common and looks to be the most prevalent (although less powerful ones such as M0.5 may be even more common?), so I took this as the average earthquake energy to very roughly line up with the energy of the average lightning strike. How many of the 20 lightning strikes around the world are average I don’t know; most of them probably. This energy calculation exercise just shows that lightning is still a possible cause of earthquakes.
This is all very well, but what is the actual mechanism of earthquakes via lightning strikes in a concave Earth? The obvious answer, or at least one of the answers, would be the piezoelectric effect in reverse. We’ve already seen that the Earth is mostly quartz. When mechanical stress (hitting or twisting) is applied to quartz, an electric current is produced. The reverse is also true:
The effect also works in the opposite way, with the material deforming slightly when a small electric current is applied. Piezoelectricity was discovered more than one hundred years ago and has many applications today. It is used in electronic clocks, gas ovens, inkjet printers, and many other appliances. It is also used in scientific instruments that require extremely precise movements, like microscopes.
In the reverse piezoelectric effect, a crystal becomes mechanically stressed (deformed in shape) when a voltage is applied across its opposite faces.
This reverse piezoelectric effect creates expansion and contraction within the quartz crystal.
The quartz crystal expands when current is applied one way.
The quartz crystal is squeezed when the current direction is reversed.
In a concave Earth, instead of current coming from the outside face flowing to the opposite face and moving out, the current would come from the center to the inside face and travel around the crust and back to the center from the opposite inside face; same principle really. Lightning mostly hits the landmasses, and these landmasses are all around the cavity. There are 20 lightning flashes a second happening in all directions up to about 65° latitude north and south. This is creating expansion and contraction all the time in different parts of the Earth cavity, which could create serious fracture lines over time, especially if a few lightning strikes were powerful enough. Considering that a typical very thin quartz disk fractures with more than a few volts, this isn’t unimaginable at all. These fracture lines are of course the tectonic plates.
I know there are a few bible reading Christians who read this blog so I will end this section with this quote from Revelation 16:18 (KJV).
And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great.
- The Sun inducts in a vacuum releasing electrons in three ways: 1. converting electrons to light, 2. thermionic emission (like a cathode ray tube) and 3. electron/positron pairs.
- The Sun’s electrons are emitted into its solar wind which feeds electrons into the Van Allen Belts.
- In the concave Earth model (CEM), the Van Allen Belts are centered around the Sun in the middle of the Earth cavity, not around a convex Earth.
- The Van Allen Belt around the Sun consists of mostly electrons, which are very highly charged. The other belt until the ionosphere (glass layer) mostly consists of extremely high energy protons and a few low energy electrons.
- There are a few potential differences from crust to Sun, but the main general one is the negatively charged Sun emitting electrons to the Earth’s crust.
- There are five pieces of evidence that the Sun charges the Earth: 1. Lightning induced electron precipitation from the Van Allen Belts to the ionosphere during a thunderstorm. 2. Sprites (electron beams) traveling from the ionosphere to cloud. 3. Positive charge is emitted from sharp objects (blades of grass) on the crust to the cloud during thunderstorms. 4. Positively charged blue jets moving from cloud to ionosphere during a thunderstorm. 5. The solar wind is said to electrify the atmosphere; and when the solar wind hits the Earth’s atmosphere, it increases lightning strikes by 50%.
- The Van Allen Belts don’t exist beyond + and -65° latitude. Neither do lightning strikes. Coincidence?
- The Van Allen Belts form the same toroid shape as the Earth’s electric H-field except for those latitudes where the electric circuit is broken due to a lack of moisture in the atmosphere.
- The Sun has an electric current (solar wind or heliospheric current sheet) and a magnetic field with its poles emanating from the Sun’s face and rear side.
- These two fields are perpendicular to each other with the solar wind’s plane the same as the Sun’s face.
- The evidence for which is: 1. Bursts of high energy electrons have been detected in the solar wind at high latitudes. 2. The solar wind is said to exist at the “point that separates north facing magnetic field lines from south facing magnetic field lines”, which is at the Sun’s rim. 3. The northern and southern lights, which are said to be caused by the solar wind, occur at the same time. This is hard to explain in the mainstream heliocentric model (due to Earth’s supposed tilt away and towards the solar wind).
- The alternate rotational direction of the Sun’s electric current due to Lenz’s law can explain why electrons move back and forth between the hemispheres.
- In the CEM, the plasmasphere (sunspot) rotation across the Sun’s equator is a completely separate effect to the solar wind.
- This sunspot rotation could be a mechanical effect caused by the Sun’s counterclockwise precession around the center, like a gyroscope’s precession and axial spin.
- Earth has an electromagnetic circuit caused by the Sun’s induction charging the Earth’s crust. Negative charge is constantly leaving the crust moving upwards towards space.
- This circuit is the likely cause of bendy light due to engineers weakly electrifying cavities of silicon to produce bendy light in the cavities.
- This electric circuit allows the Sun’s light to follow a “magnetic path” regardless of where the Sun points. The reasons for which are unknown to the author.
- Neither tectonic plates, not lighting strikes occur in the Arctic Circle or Antarctica.
- There is a link between earthquakes and the solar wind as well as between the solar wind and a higher number of lightning strikes.
- The energy efficiency of an average lighting strike creating an earthquake is a few percent.
- The piezoelectric effect seems to be the best known electric mechanism to describe how lightning causes earthquakes and the tectonic plates.
It’s time to leave the Concave Earth model for a second and concentrate on something real, i.e. an experiment, with a little bit of engineering to boot. Let’s look at the hard evidence for bendy light.