Is the Sun a light-bulb?

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This sounds so outlandish that it has to be farcical, but unfortunately it’s the only reasonable explanation that fits the evidence coming down at us from the sky.

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The Sun origin of meteorites
The composition of meteorites
The Sun as an artificial construct
The role of each meteoric element
Conclusion

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The Sun origin of meteorites

As already stated in the last article, the moon and planets are likely mirages and the stars are probably atmospheric phenomena; at least I can’t find any verifiable evidence to show otherwise. The only objects in the sky that have been validated as being of real matter is the Sun (because it is hot) and meteorites (because they have been seen falling from the sky and consist of a constant foreign composition than anything terrestrial).

Meteorites are meteoroids which have entered the atmosphere, broken up and landed on the ground. When a meteor enters the atmosphere, at what height is it first visible?

Meteors become visible between 100 and 120 kilometres altitude.

and

The meteor typically is formed around 100 km altitude. Few particles or meteoroids survive below 80 km.

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What a surprise! That pesky 100 km keeps coming up time and time again. When the meteoroid enters the atmosphere (read hits the glass), it is labelled a meteor or shooting star, leaving a luminous trail behind it; and when it lands it is categorized as a meteorite.

shooting star
Shooting stars are meteoroids entering the atmosphere at 100 km.

A meteoroid is a small particle from a comet or asteroid, although a number of them passed through the asteroid belt directly. If comets, asteroids and meteoroids are the same, then they must be made of the same material which also must be white hot as they travel in the thermosphere. But comets are said to be made of

…rock, dust, water ice, and frozen gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia.

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Not if they pass through the thermosphere they are not. Molten rock is all they could be, but meteorites are mostly stoney iron meteorites with 5% of them consisting solely of iron and nickel with sometimes sulfur in the mix. If meteorites come from comets, then comets must also consist of stoney iron. The “stoney” part is silicon dioxide and we know where that comes from… the glass in the sky. This means that comets, asteroids and meteoroids must all be made of iron/nickel/(sulfur) and are ultimately different names for the same objects.

Comet-Hale-Bopp
Comets act exactly like shooting stars but bigger and perhaps bounce off the glass instead of breaking through.

Comets and asteroids are the likely culprits of the mass in Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) as these have been theorized to consist of:

The ejected material is a plasma consisting primarily of electrons and protons, but may contain small quantities of heavier elements such as helium, oxygen, and even iron.

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Iron? The sun? Fancy that.

As some meteoroids have been noticed to pass through the asteroid belt completely, they must have been released from the Sun with enough force to make it to Earth and hit the glass. Some meteoroids may not have been released with such speed and become trapped in orbit around the Sun, which could explain the asteroid belt. Comets are also said to move around the Sun, also making it their likely origin. These comets move in a direction opposite to Earth meaning they move from East to West, in the exact same direction as the ether. No surprises there either.

However, who is to say these orbiting asteroids and comets actually exist? They could also be a part of the Copernican illusion which has bedazzled astronomers for hundreds of years. The asteroid belt is only detected by seeing if any “stars” have moved more than its background over a one hour period. As there is no verifiable evidence of stars existing beyond the atmosphere, this is hardly conclusive proof of anything, to say it lightly. Comets may also just be mislabeled meteors. Whatever the truth, it doesn’t matter to the theory of this article.

Now we have seen that meteorites have the Sun as their likely origin, what is their composition?

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The composition of meteorites

According to Wiki, there are four types of meteorites.

1. The first are the ordinary chondrites which constitute 87% of all meteorites found. These are split further into three categories depending on their iron content.

A. H-type (40% of ordinary chondrites) consist of MgSiO3 with up to 12% FeSiO3 (bronzite), Mg2SiO4 with up to 20% Fe2SiO4 (olivine), FeS (Troilite), and up to 19% of the total metorite content as a Fe-Ni alloy.

h-type ordinary chondrite
H-type ordinary chondrites have the highest pure iron content as iron chondrules. These “droplets” of iron denote the iron being of separate origin to the glass. It must be part of a largish meteor as it melted through the glass layer at 100 km altitude.

B. L-type (40% of ordinary chondrites) consist of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 (hypersthene), Mg2SiO4 with up to 25% Fe2SiO4 (olivine), FeS (Troilite), and up to 4-10% of the total meteorite content as a Fe-Ni alloy.

L-ordinary
L-type chondrites have less iron than h-types. These probably originated from smaller meteors than h-types and had more time to blend in with the glass layer making them more glass than iron.

C. LL-type (10% of ordinary chondrites) are made of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 (hypersthene), Mg2SiO4 with up to 32% Fe2SiO4 (olivine), FeS (Troilite), and up to 3% of the total meteorite content as a Fe-Ni alloy.

LL-chondrite
LL-type chondrites have the least amount of iron and probably originated from the smallest meteors which had the most time to blend in with the glass layer making them nearly all glass.

In all three of the above types of ordinary chondrites, there are also very small amounts of FeCr2O4 (Chromite – 0.02% chromium, which is much lower than what occurs on Earth naturally), NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8 (Na-rich feldspar) and phosphorus in the form of merrillite, Ca9NaMg(PO4)7, and chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl. Chlorine can’t possibly be native to the original white hot meteor, as chlorine is a gas above -34 °C. It is however present in the atmosphere to react with the glass and phosphorus and magnesium etc. of the meteorite.

Abundant carbon as graphite has also been occasionally observed in the metal in each type of ordinary chondrites but according to the article there has been no systematic search conducted. This means graphite could be present in a lot more ordinary chondrites than currently known, or even in all of them; especially if it is small or dispersed enough not to be noticed without testing. Carbon has been detected as both graphite or graphite–magnetite with one batch of chondrites yielding 0.03 to 8.4% carbon content, while another showing 0.16% to 0.57%. A dissertation from the University of California on page 1 states that:

Carbon is a minor component of chondritic meteorites: type 3 ordinary chondrite (OC) falls typically contain 0.3– 0.6 wt%

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And in Field Guide to Meteors and Meteorites, page 245:

Graphite C A common accessory mineral in iron meteorites, ordinary chondrites and ureilites.

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So it seems graphite is present in most ordinary chondrites.

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2. A second type of meteorite is the E-type chondrites which account for only 2% of all meteorites found in the world. They are high in MgSio3 (enstatite), but most of the iron in this meteorite is the the form of an iron-nickel alloy and FeS (trollite). The rest of the metal is bound to the silicon dioxide component with minor amounts of schreibersite (Fe-Ni)3P and graphite.

enstatite meteorite
Enstatite meteorites are full of magnesium. The reason for which is explained later in this essay.

3. The third meteorite category is the carbonaceous chondrites. These make up less than 3.6% of total meteorites and lack iron/nickel in its alloy form completely. Instead, the iron is bound in magnetite (Fe3O4) and the sulfur is bound as sulfates, both magnesium and sodium. The silica part of glass is also in soluble form. Unsurprisingly, this means that water is present, which it is; namely 3% to 22%, with organic compounds like amino acids in the mix. There is also carbon present (hence the name) in the form of graphite or diamond (from the pressure of the impact crater).

carbonaceous-chondrite
Carbonaceous chondrites have no iron chondrules. The complete mixing of the iron with the glass denotes a very slow “melt-through” from very small meteors. They are also likely some of the oldest meteorites allowing for the organic material from the Earth to take hold. The thermosphere excludes an extraterrestrial origin of this organic substance.

There are also inclusions of what are called pre-solar grains or “stardust” in all chondrites, from ordinary through to carbonaceous. These consist of the usual suspects already mentioned plus two additional elements: titanium carbide and silicon nitride.

Conclusion: We know the silicon part of silicon nitride came from the glass, and so the very likely origin of the nitrogen is the atmosphere with which the white hot meteor (pre-landed meteorite) reacted as it fell to Earth. It is impossible for water and organic compounds to be present in meteors as not only is the 500 to 1500 °C temperatures of the thermosphere going to boil off any water at normal atmospheric pressure, but in a vacuum, water evaporates at room temperature! Of course, meteors likely originate from the sun anyway, transforming the impossible into the ludicrous.

Others agree, but on different grounds:

But chemical studies of these meteorites have often been challenged as unreliable by scientists claiming that contamination has occurred through exposure, storage, or handling. Over time, says Jeff Bada, of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, even carefully stored meteorites gradually become contaminated.

If organic compounds such as amino acids from Earth’s biosphere have penetrated meteorite samples, they would no longer be representative of early solar system chemistry, nor could they provide evidence of an extraterrestrial source for the components of Earth’s first life. But figuring out whether or not a meteorite has been contaminated has proven to be a thorny problem.

According to Engel, several lines of evidence indicate that the interior portions of well-preserved fragments from Murchison are pristine. Engel points to the array of amino acids Murchison contains and to isotope studies to bolster his position. Other scientists are equally convinced that the evidence proves the opposite: that Murchison is now thoroughly contaminated by terrestrial organic material.

Indeed, the results of various experiments performed on Murchison are a bit of a head-scratcher – and a good window into how science works when data are ambiguous.

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So far, the materials present in meteorites in order of highest quantity are silicon dioxide (glass), magnesium, iron and nickel (as an alloy), sulfur, carbon (graphite), phosphorus, sodium, aluminum, calcium and titanium. Now, we know that the silicon dioxide part comes from the glass layer in the sky 100 km up there. The magnesium part is always bound with the glass as the enstatite olivine or bronzite; ditto sodium, aluminum and calcium as feldspar. We never see magnesium sulfide or magnesium-iron alloys or nickel-iron-magnesium alloy or sodium sulfide etc. This means that magnesium, sodium, aluminum and calcium must be part of the glass to begin with, before the meteor hits it. Therefore, before they melt through the glass, meteors must consist mostly of an iron-nickel alloy along with trollite (iron sulfide), graphite, titanium and perhaps phosphorus.

With this in mind, it is very likely that a few meteors will be so large that some of their main metallic component breaks through the glass without mixing with it… and lo and behold that is exactly what we see.
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4. The fourth type of meteorite is the iron meteorite which constitute 5% of the overall number. These consist of the nearly pure metallic type and the stony-iron ones which are metal with chrondules of olivine throughout. The pure metallic types are made of

nearly 100% metal, although many contain the iron sulfide mineral troilite.

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As expected.

Sikhote
The Sikote iron meteorite fell in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains in eastern Siberia. It is 93% iron, 5.9% nickel, 0.42% cobalt, 0.46% phosphorus, and 0.28% sulfur. No graphite this time.
TamentitMeteorite
The Tamentit Iron Meteorite was found in 1864 near Tamentit and weighs about 500 kg. The largest meteorites are always pure metallic ones; which they must be, otherwise the original meteor would have blended with the glass layer in the sky creating either stony-iron meteorites, or ordinary/carbonaceous chondrites, the type of which depends on its size.
olivine stony meteorite
The large molten stony-iron meteor fell quickly through the glass layer at a likely more vertical angle taking some of the molten glass with it, solidifying quickly as it cooled down in its descent.
pallasite stony meteorite
This stony-iron meteorite also has glass embedded throughout in a pattern denoting a sudden penetration, flash mixing and then quick cooling.

Is the iron-nickel content one alloy or several?

Nickel-iron metal in iron meteorites occurs in the form of two distinct alloys. The most common alloy is kamacite, named for the Greek word for “beam”. Kamacite contains 4 to 7.5% nickel, and it forms large crystals that appear like broad bands or beam-like structures on the etched surface of an iron meteorite. The other alloy is called taenite for the Greek word for “ribbon”. Taenite contains 27 to 65% nickel, and it usually forms smaller crystals that appear as highly reflecting thin ribbons on the surface of an etched iron.

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There are also very small amounts of three other iron-nickel alloys: Antitaenite, Tetrataenite, and Awaruite.

Does this mean that the original meteor consisted of five different alloys? No. There is only one alloy for the original meteor flying through the thermosphere as:

Taenite essentially has a nickel lattice and kamacite has an iron lattice. At high temperatures both iron and nickel are face-centered, and iron meteorites are essentially all taenite. As the temperature drops, kamacite begins to exsolve, expelling nickel into the taenite and forming thin lamellae of almost pure iron.

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This means that the nickel content of the original alloy in the thermosphere is probably roughly 30-35% uniformly throughout the meteor. When it cools down in the atmosphere, the nickel concentration becomes unbalanced forming an overabundance in one part (taenite) and a lack in another (kamacite).

Unsurprisingly, graphite (carbon) and iron sulfide is present in most iron meteorites. These occur in the iron-nickel metal as nodules which means that just as the iron-nickel alloy passes through the glass creating metallic nodules of iron-nickel within the glass (called chrondules), which form the ordinary chrondite meteorites, the graphite and sulfur must pass through the iron-nickle alloy so that it forms its own nodules within the metal. Also note that an iron meteorite contains nodules of either iron sulfide OR graphite, but not together as one nodule. This means that the sulfur and the graphite belong to separate “parts” of the Sun (the likely origin of meteorites).

Iron meteorites are composed largely of nickel-iron metal, and most contain only minor accessory minerals. These accessory minerals often occur in rounded nodules that consist of the iron-sulfide troilite or graphite

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Also, graphite has often been found surrounding troilite:

…the graphite and daubréclite surround the troilite inclusion.

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and on page 78 of Field Guide to Meteors and Meteorites:

…any iron meteorites have nodules of troilite, often surrounded by graphite.

graphite around troilite
The darker colored graphite around a part of the sulfur containing material troilite.
troilite and graphite
The graphite is embedded next to the troilite (FeS).

Phosphorus is also present in iron meteorites as (Fe-Ni)3P (scheibersite) which must be unique to the meteor as it is found in antarctic meteors and these only impact ice, rather than the earth’s crust. Within the iron meteorite, scheibersite is…

…in the form of plates and as shells around nodules of troilite (an iron sulfide mineral). Rodlike schreibersite is called rhabdite and was once thought to be a separate mineral.

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The plates in the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy suggest that it is likely already in contact with the original iron-nickel iron as a layer, perhaps even a plated one.

scheibersite needle
A needle or plate of schreibersite inside an iron meteorite.

Also, schreibersite surrounds dark graphite inclusions as well as the troilite and graphite mix, as can be seen in the images below.

schreibersite around graphite
The shiny shreibersite surrounds the dark graphic nodule.
graphite around troilite
The graphite surrounds the lighter-colored troilite, which is in turn encompassed by the shiny schreibersite (Fe-Ni)3P and then followed by the near-black pressurized carbon with a touch of brownish cohenite (Fe-Ni-Co)C around some of the edges.

Not often mentioned is that there is also a very small amount of cobalt present in the iron-nickel alloy at around a few tenths of a percent of the total metal content. This suggests that when the graphite leaves the Sun, it passes through the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy forming cohenite (Fe-Ni-Co)C.

iron-sulfide troilite or graphite …often surrounded by the iron-phosphide schreibersite (Fe-Ni)3P and the iron-carbide cohenite (Fe-Ni-Co)C.

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The cohenite can be found on its own and around a dark carbon layer surrounding the schreibersite.

…the outermost layer on the schreibersite corona which surrounds the nuggets of troilite and graphite.

cohenite in iron meteorite
Cohenite nodules.
graphite and troilite
Shiny schreibersite surrounds the troilite (left) and a little bit of the graphite (right). The schreibersite is surrounded by the near-black pressurized carbon followed by the last layer of brownish cohenite (Fe-Ni-Co)C.

Also, in amongst the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy is a trace amount of precious metals (a few parts per million), especially iridium; at least in higher concentrations than found naturally on Earth.

Overall conclusion: As meteors come from the Sun, the Sun itself must be made of iron meteoritic components and in its ratios. Thereby, the Sun is mostly made of an iron (65%)/nickel/cobalt/trace precious metals alloy. There is also a separate graphite component which must be in contact with the very small titanium part as titanium is only present in meteorites as titanium carbide (stardust). The graphite area is also in contact with the sulfur part as graphite often surrounds the iron-sulfide nodules in meteorites; the graphite doesn’t react with the sulfur however. The iron-nickel-phosphide (schreibersite) component is likely to be a part of the Sun as is, because phosphorus cannot exist on its own as a single element in extreme heat. (The same applies to sulfur, but we will see its role later). Schreibersite is found in plate form and so it is likely plated to the common iron-nickel-cobalt alloy already mentioned.

Also, since graphite and troilite are present in most (iron) meteorites (the former often surrounding the latter) and that they are in the form of nodules in the iron-nickel alloy, all meteors must start life as expulsions of graphite-encompassed sulfur (or occasionally just sulfur) which then hits the schreibersite (Fe-Ni)3P plated layer of the main iron-nickel-cobalt alloy which constitutes the bulk component of the Sun. The sulfur has a low melting point and so quickly reacts with the iron from the alloy forming iron sulfide (troilite). This super-high temperature (5500 °C) mass of graphite and sulfur melts the schreibersite layer and then melts into the main iron-nickel-cobalt alloy behind it. This molten mass is then ejected away from the Sun in a probably centric fashion (like the Phi curve?) until it hits the glass layer at 100 km up. At this point the size of the meteor and/or the angle with which it hits the glass determines how much glass the iron meteor picks up and how the glass mixes with the meteor, whether through very rare total blending (carbonaceous meteorites), common varied blending (ordinary chondrites), rare no blending (stoney-iron meteorites), or rare iron meteorites containing no glass at all, even in chondrule form.

Now we understand the process, what kind of object does the Sun sound like to you?
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The Sun as an artificial construct

Pure metallic iron alloys are extremely rare in nature. The only example of a naturally-occurring iron-nickel alloy is called telluric iron, found only in Greenland. Even then, the composition of this iron is vastly different to that of the meteoric one. In Neutron activation Analysis of Metals, a case study:

For example, the nickel content of the Cape York meteoritic iron is about 8%; and that of the telluric iron lies in the range of 1% to 3% (with one specimen of 6.5%). The carbon content should also be useful in this respect, as the Cape York meteorites contain less than 0.08% while the telluric Ovifak iron ranges as high as 10%.

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In the Cape York area of Greenland there is 58 tons of the meteoric iron and over 500 tons of iron meteorites found on Earth so far. The Sun is still in the sky which means it consists of an incredible amount of iron-nickel-cobalt alloy whose composition does not exist on Earth at all. In fact, chondrites consist of other minerals unique to themselves.

There are generally many inclusions of assorted minerals, including nickel-iron grains, iron sulfides, magnetite, and many other minerals, some unique to asteroids.

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Schreibersite is very rare on Earth, where the only known occurrence of the mineral is on Disko Island in Greenland; but it is common in meteorites. The amount of precious metals, especially iridium, is much higher in meteorites than normally found naturally.

Conclusion: The Sun consists of a humungous amount of iron alloy with a unique composition, where iron alloys themselves are nearly never found on Earth naturally. Other materials are also unique to the Sun or are otherwise very rare compared to the same elements on Earth. All meteorites consist of the same very few components in different ratios in the same pattern and format and consistency. Also, iron meteorites are easily confused with rusted pieces of man-made iron and steel. Not forgetting, there is a humungous amount of almost-pure glass in the sky 100 km high, the composition of which is never found on Earth naturally.

What are the chances that the Sun is an entity of natural formation? Next to zero I would say. The Sun must be a technology. What else can it be? If the Sun is a technology, let’s look at the properties of the materials of the different parts of the Sun and how they are used in today’s man-made technology to see if we can determine what kind of apparatus the Sun is.

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The role of each meteoric element


1.
The main mass of the Sun is the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy. The ratio of nickel in the original meteoric alloy is somewhere between 30-35%. This alloy has what is called the Invar effect:

In 1897 Guillaume1 discovered that face-centred cubic alloys of iron and nickel with a nickel concentration of around 35 atomic per cent exhibit anomalously low (almost zero) thermal expansion over a wide temperature range. This effect, known as the Invar effect, has since been found in various ordered and random alloys and even in amorphous materials2.

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Low to zero thermal expansion over a wide temperature range? Funny that. How do we use this alloy in our every day technology?

Iron, nickel, and cobalt-based alloys used primarily for high-temperature applications are known as superalloys. Iron-based superalloys are characterized by high temperature as well as room-temperature strength and resistance to creep, oxidation, corrosion, and wear.

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High-temperature applications? No surprises there. Are there any other uses that could match the Sun’s disposition?

The thermal expansion property of this alloy is almost identical to that of hard glass and ceramics. It also generates a very low level of foams when used for hermetic sealing of glass. In addition to these characteristics, the alloy is low in outgassing while it provides outstanding machinability; therefore, it is widely used for vacuum vessels, CRT electron gun electrodes, and various other precision products.

CRT electron gun electrodes
Iron-Nickel-Cobalt alloy is used as electrodes in CRT electron guns (old-style box televisions and computer monitors).

Vacuum vessels? Electrodes for electron guns? Outstanding machinability! It is as if this alloy has been perfectly made for the Sun, which operates in the vacuum of space. If you think these facts are overbearing co-incidences, read on. We haven’t even started yet.
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2. The high concentrations of precious metals (compared to terrestrial standards) in the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy, such as gold, platinum, and iridium probably also have a purpose. Today’s technology uses these metals in a variety of ways.

(Gold) it is almost invariably alloyed with other less expensive metals, such as copper, zinc, silver and nickel. Important commercial uses include wiring in electronics, semi-conductors in tiny computer chips (when combined with silicon and/or other metals) and printed circuits… Platinum is also used in electronics, while its incorruptibility makes it ideal for crucibles. As an alloy with platinum (containing about 1% rhodium), it is used in thermocouples, electrical equipment and man-made fibre production… The most corrosion-resistant of all elements, iridium is also used to make crucibles and high temperature lab equipment. Iridium is usually alloyed with platinum (with iridium being less than 20%). The alloy is then used in robust electrical contacts, precision resistance winding.

iridium spark plugs
Iridium is 6 times harder, 8 times stronger, and has a melting point 1200 degrees higher than platinum making it an ideal material for the electrode of a spark plug.

So, we have electronics, electrodes, crucibles and high temperature lab equipment. It is the same theme again and again… electrics and high temperatures.
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3. Carbon (graphite) is also part of the Sun, from which all meteors likely originate. What properties does this material possess?

Graphitic substances, due to their exceptional thermal resistance and light weight, can suitably tackle this situation. Some application of graphite in aerospace industry includes engine cases, blast tubes, rocket nozzle, nose cone, different edge components, thermal insulator etc.

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Yet another material of the Sun that has exceptional thermal resistance. How do we use this in our every-day technology?

This particular structure of graphite in a single layer makes it one of the most stable and unreactive materials that can retain its strength and physical properties at a temperature as much as 2200 degree Celsius. The atomic structure of graphite reveals that, it poses delocalized electrons which are mobile and is responsible for carrying heat and electricity. A very pure form of graphite is pyrolytic graphite which is desired for its anisotropic properties. For its superior conductivity and stability pyrolytic graphite has many advanced use, for example, ultra-high vacuum crucible, missile components, thermal insulator, rocket nozzles, and aircraft’s brake.

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Yet another material used in a vacuum, just like the Sun. It isn’t just used in vacuum crucibles, however; its main technological purpose is as electrodes for industrial electric arc furnaces used to melt scrap iron and steel.

Graphite electrodes carry the electricity that melts scrap iron and steel (and sometimes direct-reduced iron: DRI) in electric arc furnaces, the vast majority of steel furnaces. They are made from petroleum coke after it is mixed with coal tar pitch, extruded and shaped, then baked to carbonize the binder (pitch), and then graphitized by heating it to temperatures approaching 3000 °C, that converts carbon to graphite.

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Interestingly, the carbon turns to graphite at close to 3000 °C which would perhaps explain why the carbon of the 5,500 °C Sun is in this form.

Carbon electrode
A large graphite electrode used in an electric arc furnace.

So what information do we have so far? The Earth is surrounded by a 99%+ pure glass layer which is then followed by a vacuum and then a radiating artificial light. What kind of technology does this sound like to you? You have several of them in your home right now.

vacuum Kirby lightbulb
A Kirby vacuum light-bulb. Is the Sun a filament technology in glass somewhat similar to the light-bulb above?
carbon marconi filament
A carbon Marconi filament. At the end of the 19th century light-bulbs had carbon filaments encased in a vacuum rather than a noble gas… nearly the same as the Sun.

If the Sun is a light-bulb, then the originating component of meteors: carbon, is likely to have an electrode role. Electricity is never smooth and even in its transmission through a wire or an electrode. There are surges every now and then.

They are produced by the random movement of charge carriers, caused by thermal agitation, and by other physical processes in matter that stem from the discrete nature of electricity, as well as by the random variations and instability inherent in a circuit.

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It stands to reason that the electric current powering the Sun light-bulb would also have varied surges throughout its “shelf-life”. This would explain solar flares. In fact, these surges may be what causes bits of the graphite electrode to break off and melt through the iron alloy and then on to Earth as meteors. This is supported by the fact that coronal mass discharges (CMEs), of which iron has been speculated as an element, have a very strong correlation with solar flares and that both CMEs and solar flares typically erupt from what are known as the active regions on the sun where magnetic fields are much stronger on average. Could these stronger magnetic fields be where the carbon electrodes are placed? Very likely.
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4. This leaves sulfur as the only possible component for the filament part of the light-bulb, especially as graphite is often found in contact with or surrounding iron sulfide in meteorites. To be honest, I had never heard of sulfur as a filament and thought I was barking up the wrong tree, until I found that sulfur lamps had already been invented and exist right now.

sulfur lamp
Original sulfur lamps of the 1990s. Note the left one is a flattened spherical shape, coincidentally similar to the Earth.
sulfur lamp sun
A typical modern sulfur lamp has a parabolic reflective disk behind the filament bulb to increase the illumination. This would also seem a likely shape for the Sun, as we see the Sun as a circle in the sky.

Sulfur lamps were first researched as a project in 1986 taking four years to fully develop. However, being too expensive to manufacture they were never commercially available until quite recently. A 1994 article mentions them below.

The brightest prospect of that kind is a revolutionary prototype bulb developed by Fusion Lighting of Rockville, Md., in conjunction with DOE: a tiny closed quartz sphere containing argon gas and a pinch of elemental sulfur. When zapped with ordinary kitchen-grade microwaves, the bulb gives off intensely bright and relatively cool rays that are remarkably similar to sunlight.

The sulfur bulb gets so hot that it has to be rotated at 300 to 600 revolutions per minute to prevent the quartz from melting, which it would do “in about 2 seconds” if uncooled, says Fusion Lighting Vice President Michael Ury. (Early prototypes also required two fans per bulb; later versions have eliminated that need.)

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A sulfur lamp is remarkably similar to sunlight and needs to be rotated to avoid melting the glass. Is this why we have day and night, to avoid melting the glass in the sky? If so, each rotation of the sulfur lamp would be equivalent to one Sun rotation, which is 24 hours. That means that 300-600 rotations per minute is equivalent to 300-600 days or 1 to 2 years. Is 1+ years for us equal to one minute of the engineers’ time? Two seconds before the glass melts is equivalent to 10 to 20 days Earth time. If the sun is at full power and stops for 20 days, then we could be in trouble.

Also, what kind of temperatures does a sulfur light-bulb produce to melt the quartz glass in 2 seconds? The answer: 6000 Kelvin or 5,500 °C. Mmm, where have we heard that temperature before? Oh yes… the Sun of course. The temperature of the corona of the Sun is also 5,500 °C.

Because of the sulfur lamp’s remarkable similarities to Sunlight, hobbyist and indoor growers are building the lamps themselves. You tube authors often describe these lamps as “The Sun on Earth” and “a true full spectrum“.

sulfur lamp growhouse
A hobbyist built this sulfur lamp himself for his plants.
sulfur lamp2
A modern sulfur lamp using a reflective parabolic dish, probably very similar to the Sun.

What does full spectrum mean?

Full-spectrum light is light that covers the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared to near-ultraviolet, or all wavelengths that are useful to plant or animal life; in particular, sunlight is considered full spectrum, even though the solar spectral distribution reaching Earth changes with time of day, latitude, and atmospheric conditions.

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In fact, when comparing camcorder stills of the Sun and those of a sulfur lamp it is very difficult to spot the difference. If it weren’t for the background in the shots below, it would be hard to discern which were which.

sulfur lamp1
A sulfur lamp.
sulfur lamp3
A sulfur lamp installed on a house.
Sun6
The Sun looking like the spitting image of a sulfur lamp.
Sun5
If the background were taken away, it would be near impossible to distinguish between the Sun and a sulfur light-bulb.

How similar is the light emitted from a sulfur lamp to that of the Sun?

Sulfur_lamp_spectrum
The Sun has more yellow, orange and blue light in this diagram.
images.duckduckgo.com
In this diagram, sunlight at the top of the atmosphere peaks at 500 nm and rides the curve down the longer wavelengths very similar to a sulfur lamp shown in the graph next to this one.

The reason for the lack of blue light is unknown to me at this time, but may be because the Sun uses carbon electrodes in a vacuum as opposed to an electrode-less sulfur lamp using microwaves to ignite the sulfur which is surrounded by argon gas. Apparently there is a patent for a lamp which uses electrodes (titanium oxide for example), so electrodes are possible.

The excess blue light is really only for sunlight above the atmosphere. A sulfur lamp’s light wavelengths are tested in our atmosphere. Is the very small scale of the man-made sulfur lamp the reason for the excess blue light absorption in the air between itself and the detector? If a small sulfur lamp were in the vacuum of space, would it also show an excess of blue light to 250 nm? I don’t know.

The lack of yellow and red light is more easily explained and brings us on to the next material.
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5. The Sun is very likely a parabolic disk which is made of a iron-nickel-cobalt alloy. This is further plated with a schreibersite (iron-nickel-phoshide) layer with a hardness of 6.5 to 7, which is somewhere between pyrite and quartz. There is a strong correlation between the hardness of the material and its melting point as hardness demonstrates strong molecular bonds, which is also the reason for a high melting point. This makes the melting point of schreibersite somewhere between 1200 and 1700 °C, but it could be a lot higher as Tungsten has a hardness of 7.5 and a melting point of 3422 °C. This might not seem high enough to resist the 5,500 °C temperature of the Sun, but schreibersite is highly metallic in its lustre which means it is extremely shiny. This would mean that the Sun disk would look something like a solar cooker, with most (95%) of the hot infra-red rays being reflected back out, and schreibersite, according to Buchwald V.F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, Vol. 1, “ is yellow in reflected light“. This plated layer is the likely reason for the increase in yellow and red light emitted from the Sun, and also perhaps why the Sun can be sometimes seen to be yellow/white in colour.

parabolic solar cooker
Put a sulfur filament in front of this solar cooker, but plated with schreibersite, and you’ll get something akin to the Sun.

Perhaps after many years of discharges, the schreibersite layer has reveled some of the iron-nickel alloy underneath which is adding to the extra blue light seen in the sunlight spectrum?

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6. The last component of meteorites is the tiny amount of titanium carbide present. Since titanium is always in the form of a carbide, it must be attached to the carbon electrode of the Sun. The role of this element is unknown to me, but due to its very low quantity, a guess would be that it is used as a place holder for the carbon electrodes; but that is purely speculative.
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7. We have covered all the components of iron meteorites and therefore finished with the Sun itself. However, there is still the mystery of the incredibly large quantities of magnesium that is attached to the glass layer in the sky; as well as small amounts of calcium, sodium and aluminium. In meteorites, magnesium is always attached to silicon dioxide in some form as an enstatite, but what is it doing there? Let’s look at how magnesium is used in industry to give us a clue.

Large transmitting and specialized (vacuum) tubes often use more exotic getters, including aluminium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, strontium, cesium and phosphorus.

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What are getters?

When a vacuum tube or an electron gun is pumped to a near-vacuum state, not all the air can be physically expelled. To mop up any remaining gas, a highly-reactive substance, usually a magnesium ring, is added inside the vacuum tube or electron gun and heated up.

purple getter
The broken tube on the left has a ring getter; the right ex-vacuum tube has magnesium added to the tip giving it a silvery appearance.

This is the reason why there is so much magnesium on the glass layer in the sky. The engineers pumped out (or let gravity take out) as much of the air as possible and added a magnesium getter probably close to or attached to the Sun as the magnesium needed to heat up and react with the remaining gas that was left. With such high temperatures the magnesium would have evaporated, fell, and then lined the glass.

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Conclusion

None of the evidence presented so far is conclusive, but it does make the theory likely. You may be thinking, well, what about those pictures of the Sun that show dark spots, like this one below:

h-alpha filter sun
A photo of the Sun taken with an h-Alpha Solar filter centering on the 656.281 nanometer wavelength of light.

How can photos like this be taken of such a luminous object, that clearly has no dark spots when seen with the naked eye? A hydrogen-alpha filter is added to the camera lens so that only a very narrow frequency of light can be viewed. How narrow?

H-alpha has a wavelength of 656.281 nm. A hydrogen-alpha filter is an optical filter designed to transmit a narrow bandwidth of light generally centered on the H-alpha wavelength

…These layers are selected to produce interference effects that filter out any wavelengths except at the requisite band. Alternatively, an etalon may be used as the narrow band filter (in conjunction with a “blocking filter” or energy rejection filter) to pass only a narrow (<0.1 nm) range of wavelengths of light centred around the H-alpha emission line.

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Under 0.1 nanometer of light centered around 656.281 nm! Of course the Sun has dark spots; if by dark spots they mean areas of the Sun that don’t emit wavelengths of light under 0.1 nm either side of 656.281. Take a picture of a sulfur lamp, or even an ordinary tungsten filament light-bulb with the same filter and you are bound to see something similar. The dark spots of the light-bulb mean that the light-bulb in your living room is really a spherical solid object generating millions of degrees in temperature because of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen and helium producing 5,500 °C at its corona… obviously!

sun like a sulphur lamp
Do you see any dark spots?

It’s such a non-nonsensical and deceptive proposition that the Sun has dark spots, but we are easily fooled without investigating it ourselves. Undoubtedly, it was a way for the Copernicans to try and uphold their illusion of solid spheres whirling around each other millions and trillions of kilometers away.

Interestingly, scientists thought the Sun was solid and even partly made out of iron in the early 1900s.

In principle, it seemed that one might obtain the composition of the stars by comparing their spectral lines to those of known chemical elements observed in laboratory spectra. Astronomers had identified elements like calcium and iron as responsible for some of the most prominent lines, so they naturally assumed that such heavy elements were among the major constituents of the stars.

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This was no doubt a little worrying for the heliocentric natural philosophers. Galileo’s assumption that the entire Sun must be made out of gas because sunspots move around the Sun at different speeds can’t be wrong after all.

Galileo was the founding father of the gas model theory of the sun. He observed the sun through a relatively primitive telescope and noticed that sunspots did not rotate uniformly across the surface of the photosphere. He also observed that this visible “surface” rotated at different speeds near the equator than it did near the poles.

From his study of sunspots and their uneven rotation pattern, Galileo surmised that he must be looking at some type of gas atmosphere. He was correct in that assessment, although today we know that the photosphere is a form of hot ionized plasma. Unfortunately however, Galileo also “assumed” that no other solid layers existed, or could exist, beneath the visible layer of the photosphere.

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If a light-bulb has an electric plasma around it, the whole light-bulb must be made out of plasma… so goes the logic. That is not to say that the original early 1900s’ idea of taking the entire spectrum of the sulfur lamp Sun and then breaking each wavelength down so that it would encompass practically all the elements of the Earth was not exactly a good one. Don’t forget, this is sunlight that traveled through the glass layer 100km high and all the different gases of Earth’s atmosphere underneath, so they might be forgiven in using this kind of methodology.

In fact, Henry Norris Russell at Princeton had concluded that if the Earth’s crust were heated to the temperature of the Sun, its spectrum would look nearly the same.

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Ok Henry, really. Never fear though. Galileo must be correct. What we need is some Einstein-esque mathematical makerupery to make sure a broad spectrum of elements magically turns into just one or two gases. The first person to do this will get a statue of themselves and a prize. Enter Cecilia Payne:

Cecilia Payne, who studied the new science of quantum physics (uh-oh), knew that the pattern of features in the spectrum of any atom was determined by the configuration of its electrons (of course she did). She also knew that at high temperatures, one or more electrons are stripped from the atoms, which are then called ions. The Indian physicist M. N. Saha had recently shown how the temperature and pressure in the atmosphere of a star determine the extent to which various atoms are ionized.

Payne began a long project to measure the absorption lines in stellar spectra, and within two years produced a thesis for her doctoral degree, the first awarded for work at Harvard College Observatory. In it, she showed that the wide variation in stellar spectra is due mainly to the different ionization states of the atoms and hence different surface temperatures of the stars, not to different amounts of the elements. (Or it is due to the absoption of the glass / layer and all the atmospheric gases underneath). She calculated the relative amounts of eighteen elements and showed that the compositions were nearly the same among the different kinds of stars. She discovered, surprisingly, that the Sun and the other stars are composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, the two lightest elements. All the heavier elements, like those making up the bulk of the Earth, account for less than two percent of the mass of the stars.

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Problem solved. How on Earth did Indian physicist M. N. Saha know the pressure and temperature of stars? He didn’t. It’s just pure guesswork in their heliocentric model of assumptions.

Meghnad Saha‘s best-known work concerned the thermal ionisation of elements, and it led him to formulate what is known as the Saha equation. This equation is one of the basic tools for interpretation of the spectra of stars in astrophysics. By studying the spectra of various stars, one can find their temperature and from that, using Saha’s equation, determine the ionisation state of the various elements making up the star.

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Assuming starlight through the glass and Earth’s atmosphere gives an accurate spectrum of the stars’ composition and that the equation has a true basis in reality.

The Saha ionization equation, also known as the Saha–Langmuir equation, is an expression that relates the ionization state of an element to the temperature and pressure.[1] The equation is a result of combining ideas of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics and is used to explain the spectral classification of stars. The expression was developed by the Indian astrophysicist Meghnad Saha in 1920,[2][3] and later (1923) by Irving Langmuir.[4]

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Mathematical makerupery again. Let’s combine ideas and make something up – don’t study the composition of real things (only things) from space: meteorites; instead let’s circle jerk together in maths.

“Saha had concentrated on the marginal appearances and disappearances of absorption lines in the stellar sequence (not in the upper atmosphere), assuming an order of magnitude for the pressure in a stellar atmosphere and calculating the temperature where increasing ionization, for example, inhibited further absorption of the line in question owing to the loss of the series electron. As Fowler and I were one day stamping round my rooms in Trinity and discussing this, it suddenly occurred to me that the maximum intensity of the Balmer lines of hydrogen, for example, was readily explained by the consideration that at the lower temperatures there were too few excited atoms to give appreciable absorption, whilst at the higher temperatures there are too few neutral atoms left to give any absorption. ..That evening I did a hasty order of magnitude calculation of the effect and found that to agree with a temperature of 10000° [K] for the stars of type A0, where the Balmer lines have their maximum, a pressure of the order of 10−4 atmosphere was required. This was very exciting, because standard determinations of pressures in stellar atmospheres from line shifts and line widths had been supposed to indicate a pressure of the order of one atmosphere or more, and I had begun on other grounds to disbelieve this.”

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The priesthood are a waste of space. They are forever “surprised” when real data comes in to smack them in the face repeatedly. Instead of all the heliocentric assumptions, temperature suppositions, pressure guesses, made up equations, just compare the space spectroscopy of the Sun to a sulfur lamp and its composition to iron meteorites and voila, problem solved (just about). No doubt, the high-ups at NASA and certain elements within the US military know the truth of our situation, at least they knew what the Sun really is sometime between 1979 (launch of the space shuttle) and 1986 (the start of the development of the sulfur lamp). The U.S. Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. has installed them and the Hill Air Force Base hanger (US) has many spherical ones littered under the roof. They know.

air and space museum sulfur lamps
Long sulfur lamps in the U.S. Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
AFB_hangar_sulfur_lamps
More sulfur lamps in the Hill Air Force Base hanger, US.

If the Sun is a light-bulb filament and there is glass in the sky, then natural philosophers (scientists) will be turning in their beds, as to them a very small technological “universe” is the equivalent of garlic to a vampire. It is rocket fuel to the God-botherers though. Nevertheless, everything may not be 100% artificial; at least the Earth may have already existed before it was molded and terraformed to the engineers’ specifications (or maybe not).

We still don’t know the purpose of this terraforming and who did it (and if we were told we would need some kind of a back story as we have no references). Are these engineers still around? It sounds like we are in someone’s grow house, a bit like an indoor vegetable or weed grower’s garden.

indoor gardening
Are we the plants in someone’s garden?

Also, what powers the Sun lamp? It is the turbulent ether wind which rotates the lamp around itself, probably in a vortex fashion as the ether spins East to West (not the Earth spinning West to East) and vortexes (cyclones) are also very common weather patterns. It is the turbulent ether which seems to account for all “unresolved forces” and so it is extremely likely that this is what also powers the Sun. Considering how much power the Sun gives the Earth in terms of heat and light to enable the life cycle on Earth to function (not including the infinitesimally tiny amount of energy people harness from solar power), the ether must possess virtually unlimited energy; at least energy as we know it, (largely manifesting itself as movement; whatever that is). Obviously we need to find out how to tap this unlimited energy river directly instead of relying on the indirect byproducts of the Sun machine or the wind.

How long has the Sun been in the sky? When was it manufactured and switched on? How was it manufactured? What is the lifetime of such a piece of equipment? Man-made sulfur lamps last indefinitely (forever), but the Sun lamp is losing a little bit of itself all the time (meteors) due to power surges through the graphite electrode. Does this limit its shelf-life? probably… or maybe not. Who knows? Maybe the engineers don’t know themselves.

Lastly, if the Sun is a light-bulb with the Earth coated around the glass, then we must be on the inside of the crust looking in. It looks like the concave Earth theorists are right after all. Cyrus Teed may still yet get to rejoice from the beyond.

concave earth
This is our likely set-up.

Is there any proof that we live inside a concave Earth, apart from the theory that the Sun is a light-bulb? Surprisingly there is, but more on that in the next article.

188 thoughts on “Is the Sun a light-bulb?”

  1. If you look into the sun at 6pm, you could notice that sun is darker than its edge.
    It looks like our sun is just a lampshade and the real light is coming from behind.

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  2. If you team up with flat earthers & concave earthers on different channels and forums, you can create a gofundme page for the construction of a rocket that may take years to finish, but will provide the ultimate information to either prove or disprove your theories.

    What I’m speaking of, is not an advanced rocket. It’s a rocket that we, non-NASA non-ESA people can create, given time and money. It will be capable of doing flight to 100 km, where the glass is located, if it does exist.

    It should be equipped with several information gathering devices such as pressure meter on the top of the rocket, hit detector, altitude meter and video recorder, among others. It sounds far off, but I see no reason why, if united, we could not perform such a thing.

    So whatchu think?

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    1. Costs a lot of money. Then we need accurate altitude meters which is a little problematic. To be sure of a glass sky, a rocket could be made to get to a supposed altitude meter reading of 200km, but that would be very costly I would have thought. Something to look into if you want to.

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    1. They are pieces of the Sun itself Don. Its magnetism allow it to oscillate (in my model) as it moves in the magnetic h-field of the Earth cavity. This movement powers the Sun.

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        1. Even though I could, I’m not going to add to the blog’s articles or revise them or add new ones just yet. I’ll gather as much first hand data as possible and then publish in one big wammy. I already know how the moon works now which is a great. Hopefully things will start to make even more sense this year.

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          1. cant wait for the findings!!! would love to know any new info you’ve found out by watching the Moon this last month.. Sneak peak? lol… guess i’ll wait..

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  3. Thanks Wildheretic for all this research and your time! i saw this article long time ago, but there was so much that i couldn’t be bothered to go into it… But after few years of research i have learned to concentrate my attention and slowly digest everything… although i haven’t check all the data, but i like your theory which is not based only on empty assumptions! I assume you are open to many suggestions and assumptions and real science – thats why i really like you.
    I wish most of researchers were like you!

    What are your thoughts about Venus and Sun relation ship?
    From numerology stand point and other data i have theory which lead me to think that those to objects has something very in common. Even if sun is solid or not, i think Venus can somehow powering the Sun. As you might know Sun = 365 in Chaldean numerology. And Venus = VE (versus) + backwards NUS = SUN = 225 (if you do it bankcards).
    Check some of my videos about Venus, just type on YT:
    How Venus is illuminated? [little trick]
    Plus stuff like this is worth to know:
    https://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2014/01/04/the-pentagram-of-venus/

    I am looking forward to do experiment with sun and sunspots. Try to film sun at 12 noon in different locations of earth and see what data we would get. if sunspots will differ drastically it is undeniable proof that sun is much, much closer.

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    1. I got very lucky with the Sun/meteorites/glass sky. Everything fell into place very quickly.

      Planets are a difficult one. I’m not sure about Venus to be honest.

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